LLECMOD: A Bivariate Population Balance Simulation Tool for Pulsed Liquid-Liquid Extraction Columns

Moutasem M. Jaradata, c, Menwer M. Attarakiha, b, Tilmann Steinmetzd, Hans-Jorg Bart*, a, c
a Chair of Separation Science and Technology, TU Kaiserslautern, P.O. Box 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany
b Chem. Eng. Department, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, University of Jordan, 11942 Amman, Jordan
c Centre of Mathematical and Computational Modeling, TU Kaiserslautern
d BASF SE, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany

© 2012 M. Jaradat et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Chair of Separation Science and Technology, TU Kaiserslautern, P.O. Box 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany; Tel: +49- 631-205-2414; Fax: +49-631-205-2119; E-mail:


A rigours mathematical model based on the bivariate population balance frame work (the base of LLECMOD “Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column Module”) for the steady state and dynamic simulation of pulsed liquid-liquid extraction columns is developed. The model simulates the coupled hydrodynamic and mass transfer for pulsed (packed and sieve plate) extraction columns. It is implemented using visual digital FORTRAN and then integrated into the LLECMOD program. Experimental validated correlations are used for the estimation of the droplet terminal velocity in extraction columns based on single and swarm droplet experiments in laboratory scale devices. Additionally, recently published correlations for turbulent energy dissipation, droplet breakage and coalescence frequencies are discussed as being used in this version of LLECMOD. In a case study, LLECMOD is used here to simulate the steady state performance of pulsed extraction columns with two chemical test systems recommended by the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (water- acetone-n-butyl acetate and water-acetone-toluene) and an industrial test system. Model predictions are successfully validated against steady state and transient experimental data, where good agreements are achieved. The simulated results (holdup, mean droplet diameter and mass transfer profiles) compared to the experimental data show that LLECMOD is a powerful simulation tool, which can efficiently predict the dynamic and steady state performance of pulsed extraction columns.

Keywords: LLECMOD, population balance modeling, simulation, breakage, coalescence, mass transfer, hydrodynamics, transientanalysis, pulsed sieve plate extraction column, pulsed packed extraction column.